(see  below) is a very good news for all Eritrean refugee. but the problem in this country is implementation of the plan so

I want to send my message  to Eritrean refugee Association to give all their ability  in the implementation of this plan.ABDULAZIZ M/YASIN

Country: Sudan
Planning Year: 2006
1. Protection and socio-economic operational environment
Since 1960s, Sudan has been hosting large numbers of refugees from

neighbouring countries. The composition of the refugee caseload, the causes of their flight, asylum, legal status and living environment in Sudan are varied and

complex. Chronic humanitarian crises and conflicts in the region and the political
situation in the country have contributed to the protracted presence of refugees in
Sudan and the flight of Sudanese nationals to neighbouring countries.
The Government of Sudan (GoS) is a signatory of the 1951 Convention and the1967 Protocol. It has adopted a National Asylum Act in 1974. Despite the long

history of the Asylum Act and refugee presence in Sudan, the national asylum system and its institutional capacity remain weak. UNHCR has been present in Sudan since 1967 providing, in most of the situations, direct assistance to ensure effective protection and care for refugees. In 2006, UNHCR will focus on building a viable national capacity for the establishment of an effective and fully-fledged asylum system, while reorienting its assistance programme

towards the seeking of viable and eventual durable solutions for refugees.
The planning figure for 2006 of recognised Eritrean refugees in Sudan has been

established at 116,000 and most of them have been in the country since 1970s. 

The repatriation, which was launched in the year 2000, has assisted 96,000 refugees to return to their home country. During 2004 and the beginning of 2005, repatriation has significantly dwindled to negligible numbers due to the situation coupled with drought, are believed to be the causes for the drastic reduction in the number of refugees willing to return. In 2004, out of the 9,892 who voluntarily the remaining refugees have expressed their desire to remain in Sudan due to their long presence in the country, intermarriage, family ties and other links. The chances for the voluntary repatriation of the remaining refugees, who have been in Sudan for a period of over 30 years, are likely to remain slim. The implementation of the 2002 Eritrean Cessation Clause through the Refugees Status Determination exercise (RSD) was concluded in October 2004. Based on its outcome, some 60.000 refugees have been accepted and some 25,000 persons (5,319 cases) are still pending adjudication. In view of the situation in Eritrea, UNHCR has recommended to GoS to consider the remaining cases as refugees without the need to go though individual status determination. applicants and those who had not applied for RSD in the locations where refugees reside. These 25,000 persons have family links with the recognised refugees, which pose difficulties for separating the accepted from the rejected cases, especially when providing humanitarian assistance. Currently, the overall number of recognised Eritrean refugees stands at 113,000 persons and the beneficiaries (mixed status) at some 96,000 persons. those who sought asylum in 2004 increase to 3,000. The arrival of new Eritrean asylum seekers continued in 2005 at a rate of 12-20 persons/day and increased over the Easter period to over 300 cases. The trend is however expected to persist at the same pace of 12-20 persons/day unless drastic changes occur. The majority of the Eritreans are hosted in camps and rural areas in the eastern regions of Sudan. After the first cycle of repatriation, the nineteen refugee camps number of camps will be further reduced to four. More than 5,000 recognised refugees remain in the former camps that have now been closed down. Most of the refugees have become dependent on relief and humanitarian assistance. Their protracted presence in the camps offers little viability for self-reliance. The Government of Sudan (GoS) has not yet adopted local integration as a priority solution for these refugees. autonomy turn violent and the tension on the Sudan-Eritrea border escalates, generating instability in the Eastern regions. Such developments might affect UNHCR operations in the area. for protection reasons, from Uganda, DRC, Somalia, Ethiopia and other countries, which currently number 29,000. They live in Khartoum, Juba and other areas. Where return is found to be safe and the situation conducive, UNHCR in collaboration with respective country partners will facilitate the repatriation of some 6,500 persons, including Ugandans, Ethiopians, Congolese (DRC) and Eritrean refugees within the framework of the respective Tripartite Agreements. are also Chadian refugees, who arrived in 1980s to West Darfur. In 2005, the Office will assist some 8,000 who have registered for repatriation to return. Western Sudan has witnessed conflict and internal displacement of a major scale since 2003. It is reported that the Darfur Crisis has affected some 2,4 million people, of which 1,8 are IDPs and more that 700,000 are in West Darfur. Due to the long conflict in the south, a large number of Sudanese IDPs had moved to other parts of the country, including eastern Sudan. changed in the Southern Sudan following the signature of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement on 9th January 2005. Currently, an interagency survey on IDPs is being conducted to ascertain their numbers, profile and intention to return. The outcome of the survey might have operational implications which will be included in later plans. The return to stability in the south has also triggered spontaneous return of Sudanese refugees from the neighbouring countries. interrelated. The presence of Ethiopian, DRC and Ugandan refugees in the South and Chadian refugees in Darfur regions, as well as their eventual repatriation, are Programme” for the Sudan is therefore planned and implemented in the context of this “Special Operation” but it also relates to UNHCR’s East & Horn of Africa programme.  

in Eritrea. Increasing violations of human rights, a deteriorating political situation,
repatriated, only 1,629 returned from camps. In addition, a significant number of
The situation is further compounded by the continued presence of the rejected
A wave of new arrivals from Eritrea, which began in 2003, saw the number of
have been consolidated into thirteen sites in Eastern Sudan. During 2005, the
The situation might further deteriorate if the demands of the Beja Congress for
In addition to the Eritreans, there are also refugees of concern to UNHCR, mainly
Similarly, the repatriation of the Somalis and other refugees will be sought. There
The operating environment and the political situation have however, drastically
As briefly described above, the humanitarian situation in Sudan is complex and
managed in relation with the “Chad-Sudan Special Operations”. The “Annual

2. Operational goals and potential for durable solutions
The focus of the Sudan operation has been so far on the protection and provision

of assistance for refugees. In the coming 3-5 years, in collaboration with GoS and

other partners, UNHCR will pursue a major shift in its focus, strategy and
approach, from providing care and maintenance assistance and promoting
repatriation to ensuing complementary durable solutions; especially for those
refugees who have been in the country for a long time; including promotion of

refugees productive capacities, self-reliance, resettlement, local integration and other broader options of finding solutions. The Commissioner for Refugees (COR) has been the main UNHCR government

counterpart in the Sudan. In the coming 2-3 years, BO will focus on building the
capacity of a wider network of government counterparts and relevant NGOs

for enhancing their ability and greater assumption of responsibility for effective protection and sustainable assistance for refugees.

The summary of the main country objectives include:
? Shift from the protracted care and maintenance assistance to self-reliance

as a critical step in the pursuit of durable solutions of the camp based

refugees in Eastern Sudan.
For more than thirty years, the majority of the Eritrean refugees have been
living in camps, which have rendered them dependent on relief assistance.
UNHCR, in collaboration with other partners, will support the GoS to

mobilise the productive capacities of refugees through skills training, income generation and other activities in pursuit of enabling them to become selfreliant and participatory in finding solutions. BO will advocate with national

and regional authorities for the provision of cultivable land.
? Promotion the local integration of the refugees who opt to remain in

Eastern Sudan, including the rehabilitation of refugee hosting areas

(Development through Local Integration).
During the last years, repatriation has been pursued as the best durable

solution option. The policy will remain in place as far as return is voluntary and the conditions are conducive. Nevertheless, a significant number of the

refugees in the Eastern regions have developed coping mechanism and strong
ties with local communities through their long presence, birth of the second

generation, intermarriage, similarity of ethnicity and culture, economic transactions, etc. Many refugees consider local integration as their preferred option. The host communities in refugee areas also have developed deep

relations with the refugees. Since 2004, UNHCR has been supporting refugee
hosting areas with projects for improving the service and rehabilitation of the

environment, particularly through the SOLSES programme. In consideration of these issues, UNHCR will advocate with GoS to adopt the local

integration strategy as one of the complementary tools for durable
solutions and development of refugee hosting areas.
? Facilitation and promotion of voluntary repatriation, when/where

conditions are conducive for the refugees of different nationalities

(Eritrean, Ethiopian, Ugandans, Congolese and Somali, and others).
The implementation of this strategy will be pursued in line with the existing

tripartite agreements with respective countries (TRC and modalities of 2005 for Eritrean refugees) as well for other refugees (Ugandan, Ethiopians and

DRC refugees) while new tripartite agreements will be concluded with other
countries of origin, especially for Somali refugees.
? Resettlement of refugees in a third country as a complementary and

mutual form of durable solutions, especially for the protracted refugee

Special mechanism and procedures will be set up to pursue resettlement as a

strategic avenue for enhancing protection for selected numbers of refugees in

urban areas and solutions for those in the camps.
? Establishment of effective national asylum system that ensures all

refugees and asylum seekers have appropriate legal status and protection

in accordance with international standards.
The Government of Sudan adopted the Asylum Act in 1974. GoS will be

assisted to develop sustainable mechanisms, procedures and to train its cadre for regulating the Act and adequately responding to the protection needs of asylum-seekers and refugees in Sudan. This effort will include the hand over

of the responsibility for Refugee Status Determination process to the GoS.
? Special protection and assistance for those at risk and vulnerable refugees

such as unaccompanied minors, teenage asylum seekers and refugees, elderly,

women head of household, girls, children and others of those in camps and
non-camp based refugees.


Special monitoring, response and support systems will be developed to protect them from potential abuse, violence and exploitation due to their circumstances and social status. in Sudan. women/girls and those in need of special assistance are addressed and women are given equal opportunity to access services and participate in the operations for supporting and effectively realising the above mentioned objectives through the following: Civil Society) to concentrate efforts and maximise resources for improved quality of programme delivery and enhanced protection of refugees/ persons of concern; international agreed standards. Measures to prevent SGBV will be mainstreamed in all interventions, as well as awareness on HIV/AIDS (health, education, sanitation etc.). programmes in Sudan. in Sudan to improve complia

? Ensuring gender equality among the refugees and host in all programmes
Specific indicators will be established to ensure this policy is implemented and
management of projects and other activities.
UNHCR in Sudan will strive to improve the quality and efficiency of its
? Building effective partnership (GoS institutions, UN agencies, NGOs and
? Improving the quality of services and protection in camps in accordance with
? Ensuring gender equality among the refugees and host population in all
? Enhanced oversight, accountability and efficiency of UNHCR and its partners
nce with UNHCR’s policies and standards.

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