Ideological Wasteland

Remembrance Day

November 11

For all those who laid down their lives so that we can enjoy our freedom.



A friend of mine likes to give a spin to that ageless ‘guayla’ song,

Sirihit Fenkil Tedegeme

Kabey Nekele, Warsai Yekealo

Adi Rosso Atewo Tehaso

Ab Kunat Egre Mekel Ziwuale Yinger

B’Embatkala Mis’tewerwere Nahri Wesikhu

Meret Aguahare, Meret Aguahare

Ab Tiwalet, Arede Anbessa

N’Sigalet Ketan Atsiyu Mentele Akhlil

B’Wegen Anseba Kede Zereba

Tedegeme Sirihit Fenkil

Fere Tsamakha Eyu Hizebeye

Tsehayka Berikha Leyley

Merhawi Rekhiba Metsait Dimocrasawit Ertra

Medal of Honor

What can one say?  The tireless efforts of those who organized and participated in Pretoria, Washington DC, Hague deserve the highest Eritrean Medal of Honor.  The tireless efforts of the various human rights organizations deserve the highest Eritrean Medal of Honor.  Those brave Warsai Yekealo who continue to refuse to engage in the regime’s criminal acts will be immortalized forever.  Eritrea will become a beacon of hope once again because of these brave men and women. 

In addition, one can only draw inspiration from the tireless and persevering efforts of  Their efforts and website [content] is fully focused on issues at hand – no distraction, no pettiness, but just focus on issues.  When one opens the website, the frontpage delivers timely and relevant message with full force. 

The Ideological Wasteland

There are many discussions of ‘what’ PIA is doing to our nation, ‘what’ PIA did during the struggle for independence, ‘what’ PIA did to his colleagues, ‘how’ PIA was able to outmaneuver his opponents, etc…   But many ask ‘why’ PIA is engaging in such brutality.  Some indirectly address this question of ‘why’ PIA does what he does – his mission or objective.  Many of us compare PIA’s actions to Pol Pot’s Kampuchea, Mao’s China, and others, but fail to explain what Pol Pot or Mao did to their people.  Some of my ends (of Higedefawiyan sympathesizer types) engage me in a discussion that reflects their personal torment or their inablity to explain ‘why’ PIA engages in such destructive politics.  They say to me, ‘but he fought for independence, why would he engage in acts that undermines what he fought for – unless he has some serious concerns.’  But the usual quick answer for these types of comments is that the answers fought for independence too as PIA did, so why should we doubt the others any more than PIA?

There are at least three flaws with asking the question ‘why’,

  1. Those who can afford to ask the question ‘why’ are those of us who are not directly affected by ‘what’ PIA is doing to our beloved nation.  For those Eritreans who must line up in the wee hours of the morning to buy bread and feed their siblings or must give up their siblings to Sawa wolves, the question of ‘why’ is irrelevant.  Their anger can only be directed at ‘what’ PIA is doing to their daily lives.
  2. When we ask the question ‘why’, we assume that there are always logical or rational explanations for our actions.  In reality, in politics – and even in our daily [non-political] lives – actions are as much or more affected by irrational human behaviors and emotions rather than by rational, methodical, and well-thought out reasoning.  In political life, political decisions are made as much to fulfill one’s own legacy, ego, need for vindication, grudge and other irrational behaviors as they are to genuinely address national/political issues.
  3. By asking ‘why’, we are trying to justify certain actions, usually detrimental or adverse type of actions.  In other words, we are trying to justify ‘why’ irrational behavior might be acceptable.  This eventually leads us to arrive at the conclusion that ‘the end justifies the means’.  If we ask ‘why’ PFDJ is brutal, some may justify by simply saying that it is trying to maintain ‘national unity’.   But when an average person is asked if ‘brutality to achieve a certain aim’ violates their personal belief in human rights and justice, these people retreat to their shell.  


In addition, we can only argue from here to eternity on ‘why’ someone is acting the way one does because only few actually share their hidden attentions.  More likely, people/politicians use some other rational-sounding reasoning to explain their actions when in fact they are following their emotions.  For instance, PIA may be using the border issue for seemingly rational concern of ‘national security’ when in fact he is probably more concerned about his own personal legacy at this point in time.  In other words, PIA won’t say, ‘I am doing this for my own legacy’, rather we must ascertain from our own observations of his actions to determine if his actions reflect rational or irrational behavior and acts.

One may argue that even discussing ‘why’ PIA is engaged in destructive acts is to give his actions some semblance of acceptability or rationality.  Some may argue that the opposition camp shouldn’t give any room for discussing some of the possible reasons for PIA’s action – at least not now.  Naturally, opposition propaganda can only present its disagreements with the regime in black-and-white, i.e. in the widest contrast possible, to the public.  My articles aren’t designed for general consumption, but for the most active opposition only.   Within this active opposition circle, we have the responsibility to distinguish between the personalities, their acts and their ideas.  None of us can afford to dismiss outright any ideas, concerns, views, or opinions expressed by others, including our opponents and enemies.  Usually there are no proven formulas for resolving burning issues.  Most likely, temporary solutions are arrived through dialectical process – thesis + anti-thesis => synthesis/thesis + anti-thesis => synthesis/thesis => so continues the dynamic process.  Those who can survive are only those who are wise and flexible enough to absorb “anti-thesis” and create “synthesis”.  Western civilization, esp. Anglo-Saxon, is especially characterized by its high degree of adaptability to changes.      

At some point in post-independence Eritrea (which is a carryover from liberation era), there were at least two school-of-thoughts: first group quietly engaged in subversive acts to install their military style government, and second group advocated for constitutional government. 

Who are these groups?  The first group consisted of PIA, and the second group consisted of the majority of EPLF/PFDJ members.  How does one know if the majority of EPLF/PFDJ members advocated for constitutional government?  One only needs to remember the PFDJ CC and National Assembly resolutions of September 2000.

What is the modus operandi of ‘military style government’ [the first] group?  PIA knows that any public expression contrary to the establishment of ‘democracy’ would be negatively received by the Eritrean public.  Thus, his approach has always been to give lip service to ‘democracy’, ‘constitution’ and ‘freedom’, while engaging in every act to undermine them.  In the past 8 years, PIA has been actively engaged in installing military officers at every echelon of government departments and private-turned military businesses.

Why is PIA actively engaged in installing a military dictatorship in Eritrea?  Many have pointed out that deep down PIA remains trapped in the ideological wasteland of yesteryear Maoist philosophy.  PIA has never believed that Eritrean society is capable of achieving democracy, or at least in its current state of social conditions.  It appears that PIA wants to recreate his Chinese Communist Party (CCC) in Eritrea.  PIA’s beliefs appear to be entrenched in strong central stewardship, with strong hand, which he believes is the only way to maintain national unity and security.  PIA may believe that democracy is the last stage of economic growth, i.e. economic growth must precede democracy.  Similar views have been expressed by Dr. Woldai Fitur.   Eritrean experience isn’t unique and many have already asked if liberation movements have the capacity to transform themselves into viable governments.  PIA, as well as other liberation era Eritrea leaders, remains prisoners of their liberation era experiences.          

But PIA’s vision of Eritrea has many flaws – flaws that endanger the viability and security of our nation – a vision that gambles with the fate of a nation.

  1. Succession

No discussion can begin without first addressing the most critical issue in governing a nation – succession of leadership.  A country that has clearly defined succession laws can transfer power without any political chaos, which may even lead to civil war. 

Higdefawiyans have yet to tell us who would succeed if PIA, the mortal man he is, was to be removed from power for whatever reason – health issues, accident, or any other reason.  PIA has divided the country into fiefdoms – money in the hands of small PFDJ clique, military power in the hands of competing army officers, PFDJ cadres that are the eyes and ears of the regime with one power center, the Warsais that are being encouraged to turn into another power center against their Yekealo, etc…   The purpose of dividing the country into such fiefdoms and without any clear mechanism for succession of government is to ensure that if PIA is to be removed from power before he manages to salvage his legacy, he wants to ensure that the country plunges into socio-economic and political turbulence [chaos] that he hopes will leave the general population wishing the return of the days of PIA brutal governance – hence hoping to restore his legacy through a mechanism he created – a self-fulfilling prophesy learned from the history of man.

  1. Shock therapy – The homogenization of Eritrean society and the creation of moral vacuum


PIA is a product of the armed struggle for independence.  His deeply entrenched views are shaped by Eritrean armed struggle and the struggles of other people and countries throughout history.  Based on one’s observations of PIA’s actions, one can draw close parallels with the failed efforts of the communist movements in the 20th century.

Building a democratic nation in a multi-ethnic and multi-religious society won’t be easy despite all the best intentions.  This is especially true of a nation where the establishment and maintenance of flexible and tolerant organizations is still at its infancy. 

The communists simplified answer for such natural division within a society is to eliminate these divisions – eliminate every class and thus leaving only one, the proletariat, eliminate all religious and leave one, no religion, eliminate ethnic groups through cross pollination or extermination.  For the Stalins, Maos and Pol Pots of the world, such actions must be implements in revolutionary or drastic manners – the starvation/genocide of 5 Million Ukrainians by Stalin, ‘Great Leap Forward’ and the ‘Cultural Revolution’ by Mao, the killing fields of the people of Kampuchia (esp. intellectuals) by Pol Pot had the same purpose – to homogenize societies by eliminating every division in society.

Similary, and although PFDJ is currently the single biggest instigator of religious and ethnic divide in Eritrea to ensure its immediate survival, PIA’s ultimate aim is to create a homogenized Eritrean society devoid of ethnical and religious divide in Eritrea.  For instance, although Sawa is used for PIA’s immediate political survival, it is also used to fuse the various ethnical and religious groups through co-habitation.  Such homogenization affects all groups, probably not to equal degrees, and is designed to create a generic society.

But the lessons of communist debacles are within our generation for us to witness.  Despite 70 years of brutal communist regimes, homogenization didn’t succeed.  Upon the fall of communism, nations fell apart into splinters.  Some of these countries are the former Yugoslavia, the break up of Czechoslovakia, the tiny states of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia (which some were independent before communist colonization).  There is a revival of religion despite 70 years of banning such religions.  In fact, such states now encourage the revival of religion as means of filling the moral vacuum created by communism. 

Moral vacuum has created even greater danger to nations than the challenges of governing multi-ethnic societies.  Without the moral constraints imposed by religion, people are now only constrained by man-made law.  Although there are morally unconstrained individuals within both religious and non-religious societies, the number of morally unconstrained individuals within non-religious societies by far exceeds the number in religious societies.  For illustration purpose let us say that 5% of the population is morally corrupt in religious society, whereas 30% of the population is corrupt in non-religious society.  The legal chaos in such countries such as Russia, Poland and even East Germany is for us to witness.  Luckily, East Germany has been absorbed into West Germany which has mitigated the damages of communism.  Similarly, Poland has been rescued by European Union – and has largely shaken off the anti-religious communist campaigns, although with much after effects.  Russia has managed to spawn a large number of mafia organizations.  After all, unlike divine laws, man-man laws can be subverted; they can be bought and sold; they can be stretched and broken with impunity.  China has managed to clamp Russian-type of mafia activities by incorporating them into their communist party – which PFDJ is attempting to replicate.

The irony of history is that what certain countries attempt to achieve through revolutionary activities can be achieved through evolutionary steps – i.e. there are many paths to same destination.  What Germany and Japan couldn’t do militarily to dominate the world, they are learning to do it economically.  China is learning this lesson too.  What communists couldn’t do to homogenize societies, Western societies are slowly progressing towards that through their economic prosperity.  For instance, despite Western societies’ superficial confession of beliefs in religion, in reality, adherence to religion, esp. traditional type, is being eroded at accelerating pace.  For instance, regular church attendance is the lowest in history.  But the outcome of such change in the West took evolutionary steps.

What PIA and similar believers in revolutionary thoughts have failed to understand is that their ‘shock-therapy’ to their nations has severe adverse consequences to the unity and viability of their nations – thus their efforts become self-defeating.

  1. Whims of individuals

PIA might be striving to create a nation held together by iron-men (military dictators), which is a reflection of his cynicism of Eritrean democracy based on multi-ethnic and multi-religious society.  But whatever course of action PIA may pursue to create military dictatorship, there is absolutely no guarantee that his successors will share his convictions.  His military successors, unconstrained by any limits of power, may enjoy power for its own sake without articulating any vision or embarking on any socio-economic progress for the country.  The Tiberius of the world are then replaced by Caesars, then eventually by Neros of the world dictatorship.  The fate of a nation hinges on the whims of single individual rather than ensuring success by distributing power in such manner than no one individual’s whims interfere with the survival of a nation or endanger the inalienable natural rights of man.

We can learn much from the debacles of Eritrean one-man politics in the past 15 years.  Every small but significant progress in the first 7 years after Eritrean independence has been wasted away in the following 8 years.  We learn that years of careful effort of building Eritrean society brick-by-brick can be destroyed by few minute decisions to take certain military actions by unaccountable leaders.  Similarly, whatever progress that may be achieved in the future can be taken away from Eritreans with few minutes of disastrous decisions of future unaccountable leaders.  Thus it is more critical to ensure that there be a system of government that ensures national decisions are formulated on wider consultation basis, thus depriving dangerous one-man decisions, as one of the most fundamental basis for building a strong and viable nation.

Instead of sweeping the Badme fiasco under the rug, it is more prudent for us learn its bitter lessons.  After all, when the UN commission blamed Eritrea for starting the war, the PFDJ regime simply swept it under the rug.  We have to analyze, discuss and debate every major issue that affects Eritrea.  For instance, we must ask ourselves what form of consultation took place before signing the Algiers Agreement.  Was it, for instance, a ten minute decision to look at the agreement and sign it, or was there wide consultation with historians, politicians, legal experts and other concerned individuals before signing the agreement?  This leads to one question, among many others, why the PFDJ regime didn’t insist on the time limit of UNMEE in Eritrea, after all TSZ is wholly within Eritrean territory, incorporated into the agreement.  Does the Eritrean government sign away international legal agreements without covering every angle – and most important without time limits?      

  1. Economic growth illusion

There is no doubt that PFDJ is suffering through severe hard currency shortage, and generally through economic hardship.  But no one can say for certain if this is intentional self-inflicted wound or if this economic chaos outside the regime’s control.

There are a number of factors we must examine,

    1. One of the most important instrument of dictatorship is to deprive the general population of its daily needs.  By ensuring that people line-up for bread and other daily essentials every day, dictators hope to create destitution and despair which leaves the general population susceptible for manipulation and unable to coalesce for resistance.  It is always easier to manipulate people with empty stomachs than full stomachs.


    1. PIA must keep Eritrean financial coffers empty just in case he is removed before he is able to salvage his legacy.  For instance, if the opposition camp is to assume power tomorrow, they will inherit bankrupt government and thus hoping to ensure their [opposition’s] quick downfall.  It is beyond explanation why Eritrea can remain in such dire financial state.  Examining Eritrean society, some 75% of the population lives in rural areas and is self-supporting and requires or receives no government assistance.  When we peel off the socio-economic structure of Eritrea, PFDJ only need to support probably less than 500,000 Eritrean people with all the existing natural resources of Eritrea – marine, potential tourism, marble/granite, commercial and other immediate financial gains.  For large part, instead of encouraging existing resources to be exploited, the regime has made every effort to undermine it.  PFDJ’s effort to destroy the exploitation of resources – even if not by private sector but through, say, government crown corporations run on private sector model as many European companies – is by itself clear manifestation of PFDJ’s economic war against Eritrea, or rather Eritrean future.  


    1. PFDJ is caught between the need to keep Eritrean people’s stomach empty to ensure his power grasp while simultaneously destroying government coffers, but at the same time needing to enhance that very same economic muscle it is destroying to outlast its ‘war of attrition’ against the Ethiopian regime.  To reiterate, this is where the regime’s internal stress is taking place – the need to bankrupt Eritrea while, at the same time, needing the very same economic resources it is destroying to win its battle against Prime Minister Meles (PMMZ).


PFDJ has yet to articulate what its economic growth strategy is.  It keeps talking about achieving food security.  It is one thing to achieve food security through perpetual slave labor, and it is completely different argument to state one is striving to achieve economic prosperity – the former is unsustainable, while the latter is.  For instance, why not allow expend our main efforts to exploiting marine resources and other natural resources instead of engaging solely in food productions.  Then Eritrea can use the foreign currency receiving in selling our natural resources in buying the food we need.  After all, this has become the basic economic principle of every nation, including one-time communist countries, in today’s world.   Tying up every able body in failed government/military commercial farming, as has happened in Soviet Union and China, WILL meet the same fate in Eritrea.

All analysis lead to only one conclusion.  PIA’s immediate political concern is ensuring his grip to power.  Until the border is demarcated, which he hopes will allow him to salvage his damaged legacy while simultaneously crushing the reform movement, the task of building [his] Eritrea economically can’t begin.          

Regardless of his vision of Eritrea, we can’t share it with him for the following simple reasons,

  1. Any vision for Eritrea that involves depriving Eritreans of their basic human rights is contrary to our basic principles and values.  We can never accept nor condone the imprisonment and the deprivation of life without the due process of law.  Basic principle is the foundation of vision, but vision can never become the foundation of basic principles.   Most of us don’t want to directly or indirectly become an instrument of the deprivation of the basic rights of our fellow countrymen.   
  2. No one man is wise enough nor brave enough above all others to leave the fate a whole nation in the hands of one man.  Instead, our basic belief is that wider consultation is the only reliable way to govern a nation.  Wider consultation has its own challenges, but yields a much reliable result.  The task of defending and leading a nation is the job of the entire population.
  3. There is no timeless and one-size fit all solutions.  Leaders like PIA believe that they have a proven formula to embark on socio-economic progress.  But this is illusionary.  PIA doesn’t have the crystal ball that will help him to predict the future.  Despite one-man leader’s beliefs that his efforts will have eternal positive effects, in reality, they can only be judged by their leadership during their power tenure.  Future outcomes are governed by future realities and future factors. 


The future of Eritrea can easily be judged by the following headlines in

Oct. 18, 2006 – Denbosko Technical School gratuates 108 EDF members.  It was established in 1998 and has graduated 286 students with diploma [over 8 years?]

Oct. 30, 2006 – Ministry graduates 47 nurse assistants over 18-month period.

Oct. 12, 2006 – Eritrean Police Force trains 500 members in three month training.

The future of Eritrea is being populated by 500 new policemen every three months, which is in addition to 10,000 new military servicemen every year.  In contrast, we are producing less than 100 skilled people every year.  Where are we headed?  No PFDJ needs to give us a spin, we can see the numbers; we can see where PFDJ is leading the country.

On Other Thoughts

1.      TV Zete

We would like to congratulate TV Zete for their excellent efforts.  We enjoyed the interview with Mr. Adhanom Ghebermariam.  The interviewer asked the tough questions and Mr. Adhanom gave prudent answers.  It is good to see our opposition leaders communicating with the wider Eritrean public.  PFDJ is spending millions of dollars to get into our living room and brainwash us with its propaganda.  It keeps its leader and its false socio-economic growth in our field of vision.  The opposition camp must do the same, to ensure that its leaders are able to get into our living room.  This is possible with the advent of new and cheaper technologies.  TV Zete,, EMDHR, Ms. Elsa Chryrum and Mr. Amanuel Iyassu are showing us how we can take advantage of emerging technologies with the minimum financial requirements. 

2.      Other People’s Experience

Some political critics propagate the notion that some opposition are prescribing for solutions based on textbook or other people’s and nation’s experience.  They advocate for local solutions.  This sounds logical enough at first.

But when we examine this argument, it fails in every way.  There is a tendency to throw rational sounding one-line arguments, but fail when examined.  For more fruitful debate those who say we must seek local solutions must tell us what issues we are discussing.  Are we talking about managing a nation, instituting and being governed by rule-of-law, the promulgation of laws, or the formulation of various socio-economic policies?  We should always critically examine one-line arguments.  Another popular one-line argument is ‘uprooting’ the regime.  But no one has ever explained to us what that means, although that one-liner sounds good.

Western civilization is built on poaching other people’s ideas and knowledge.  They have learned from the history of man and explored every corner of the world to adopt not only to refine their ideological beliefs but also to incorporate other people’s know-how.  They never said this is not our local solution or custom.

To make a passing comment, the experience of last week’s American elections is or should be a typical lesson for every nation.  War is divisive even to the most developed nations and that when leaders are unable to find solutions to wars that the general public will turn against the leaders within a very short period of time (2-3 years) – even if the general population may have supported it at first.  This is the history of man.  Fortunately for America, it has strong system of government that ensures the checks and balances kick in when needed.  How we wish Eritreans had the same system of government – the same checks and balances.

3.      China-Africa Economic Forum

It took one to two centuries to largely rid of Western colonialism and exploitation of Africa.  Now we are witnessing the emergence of China as a new exploiter of African resources.  Western powers allowed the Mobutus and the Abachas to accumulate billions of dollars while their nations starved.  The Nigerian writer Ken Saro-Wiwa was indirectly symbol of Western exploitation. But with collapse of the communism, the West has moved to redress of these exploitations.  Companies such as Shell in Nigeria and elsewhere have attempted to become the ‘environmental’ company while striving to encourage national leaders to share wealth with their people.  The US has the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act which discourages domestic companies from engaging in corrupt practices in other countries.  Companies such as Walmart and other companies are increasingly being forced to avoid from exploiting labour in third world companies. This doesn’t mean that there aren’t any irregularities, but there is progress being made.     

But the emergence of China will put Africa two hundred years back.  These are some of the reasons,

a.      China will create the new Mobutus and Abachas of Africa.  China is itself built on corrupt practices and has no qualms or internal control mechanism that will mitigate from using such corrupt practices when dealing with foreign nations – especially with African dictators.

b.      China is built and continues to thrive on extremely cheap labor that borders on slavery – not unlike Warsai Yekealo.  When the Chinese government engages in slave labor and exports its products, indirectly, they are exporting their slave labor to Africa.  As a result, much of Africa’s cottage industry is withering due to influx of extremely cheap products manufactured by Chinese slave labor.  Cottage industries in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and other countries are already suffering from Chinese slave labor.  Textile from India and others has largely survived due to European quota system.   

c.      The Chinese rise in economic prosperity (along with India) has resulted in sharp increase in energy prices.  The first victims of such energy price increase are the non-energy producing African countries. 

d.      The Chinese government can’t give any financial or any other aid to Africa.  Although some 200 million Chinese may have benefited somewhat from the current Chinese economic boom, still, over 1 Billion Chinese remain in utter socio-economic despair.  A couple of days ago there was a riot in Southern Guandong province. 

e.      At least the West has reached an economic pinnacle that allows Africans like us to come and share some of that wealth with them.  Many of us send back some of our money back to Africa that allows Africa to earn some hard currency through remittances.  When will Africans be able to work in China?  After China has achieved full employment for its remaining 1 Billion people – good luck!

African leaders were gathered in China as a means to mitigate Western pressure to modernize their countries.  African dictators lament the loss of Soviet Union because they used to rape their countries without any external political pressure to modernize.   Back in the Cold War, the West had to allow dictators to rape their countries because it was in competition with communist world which allowed its cronies to rape their countries.  With the fall of communism, the West has changed its foreign policy to pressure third world dictators.  One such example is the International Criminal Court.  But China will undermine these efforts.

4.      The Jon Stewart or David Letterman Show  




Such telling picture:

PIA is sitting 6 rows back at extreme right [last] seat

PMMZ is sitting three rows back third from right (and two seats next to the Chinese Premier)

Six reasons why PIA is sitting alone by himself (notice the seat next to his is empty) Everyone is clapping except PIA … hmmm, was it the EPRDF cultural troupe [which performed at the show] performing on stage when this picture was taken?  Don’t the Chinese have that 360 Degree panning capacity in their website so we can see what is going on?

6.  PIA couldn’t bring his wife with him (unlike PMMZ and Mugabe) because

     he brought somebody else instead.

          5.  PIA couldn’t bring his wife or anybody else with him because every

     additional person on the plane would mean additional fuel, which PFDJ

     couldn’t afford. 

4.   Min. Fozia Hashim, who attended the Anti-Corruption Conference in

      China, was supposed to sit there.  Unfortunately, Min. Fozia Hashim

      didn’t have enough hard currency with her to bribe her way past the

      doorman at the show.

3.   PIA had the leader/guest sitting next to him thrown into PFDJ dungeon.

2.   Every African leader bribed Chinese organizers not to sit next to PIA.

      Allegedly they were concerned that he may interfere in their domestic


 1.   UNMEE has extended TSZ or DMZ around PIA at personal level.     

By the way what is PMMZ doing sitting next to PIA Senior, President, or is it Emperor, Mugabe [who is sitting in such a way that he appears to be more taken by the lady [wife?] next to him than the show, or did PMMZ ask Pres. Mugabe to keep a peripheral vision on PIA?]

2.      PMMZ wanted to talk about how Col. Mengistu is doing.

1.      PMMZ wanted to find out if Zimbabwe can accommodate two Ethiopian 

       leaders, what the cost of farmland is per acre in Zimbabwe, etc…

In Remembrance of those who sacrificed their lives so we can enjoy our freedom,

In Remembrance of those whose lives were sacrificied in Adi Abeto, Wia, and other places,

We shall tirelessly campaign for the Hassan Keckias, the Aster Yohannes and the Bitweded Abrahas,

Excellent Work by Global Anti Tyranny Global Solidarity, Pretoria, The Hague

   The World is listening … and PFDJ is shaking …

Berhan Hagos

November 11, 2006

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